Herman Helmholtz (1821-1894)

1. Herman Helmholtz is celebrated for his contributions to physiology and theoretical physics. A delicate child, Helmholtz early displayed a passion for understanding things, but otherwise developed slowly, and had no marked early talent for mathematics. Although he wished to study physics, he was persuaded by his father to take up the study of medicine, entering the Medical Institute at Berlin in 1838.
2. His researches into phisiological optics began about 1850 with the discovery of the ophthalmoscope (1851), followed by investigations into colour, Including the problem of colour-blindness. He also made fundamental contribution to the understanding of the structure and mechanism of the human eye.
3. Helmholtz's first, and most celebrated paper in theoretical physics was his article on the conservation of force. In this paper he proved the conservation of total energy of a system of particles which were interacting through central forces depending only on the masses and separations of the particles. Other important work in theoretical physics included the famous paper on vortex motion (1858), and the application of the principle of least action to electrodynamical problems.
4. Helmholtz was undoubtedly the most versatile of nineteenth- century scientists. From 1871 onwards he was perhaps more famous as a theoretical physicist than as a physiologist. But it seems probable that apart from his work on the conservation of energy he will ultimately be remembered more for his epoch-making researches in physiological optics and acoustics in which his talents as physiologist, physicist, mathematician and experimentalist of genius were most vividly displayed.

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. В разделе (б) обратите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций.

а)
1. Russian chemical science is successfully solving many complex problems.
2. Radio astronomy has given mankind efficient means for penetration into space.
б)
1. Becquerel's discovery was followed by an intensive research work of Marie and Pierre Curie.
2. Heat energy is transmitted in two different ways.

II. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола- сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Nylon was the first synthetic fibre used in clothing.
2. The atoms forming our planet are built of negative electrons, positive protons and ordinary neutrons.
3. This kind of treatment when used makes the metals heat- resistant.
4. When passing through an electroscope, X-rays cause its discharge.

III. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. One object may be larger than another one, but it may weigh less.
2. Mass can also be defined as a measure of inertia.
3. Man-made satellites had to use solar cells as a source of power.
4. Plastics should be reinforced by different kinds of fibres. (to reinforce - усиливать, укреплять).

IV. Прочтите и устно переведите с 1-го по 3-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 2-й и 3-й абзацы.

V. Прочтите 4-й абзац текста и вопрос к нему. Из приведенных вариантов ответа укажите номер предложения, содержащего правильный ответ на поставленный вопрос:

For what researches will Helmholtz be remembered?
1. ...for his celebrated paper in theoretical physics.
2. ...for his epoch-making researches in physiological optics and acoustics.
... for his paper on vortex motion.

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